यहाँ हम active and passive voice in hindi का अध्ययन करेगें, बिल्कुल आसान तरीके से जिसकी मदद से आपका grammar में active and passive अध्याय आसान हों जाएगा।
active and passive का अध्ययन करने से पहले हम voice के बारे में कुछ जानकारी प्राप्त कर लेते है।
voice:- voice किसी वाक्य में प्रयुक्त verb का रूप होता है जो यह दिखता है कि कर्त्ता कुछ करता है या स्वंय कर्त्ता पर ही कुछ घटित होता है। EXAMPLE:-
- shyam is beating ( यहाँ कर्त्ता कुछ कर रहा है)
- shyam is being beaten ( कर्त्ता पर कुछ घटित हो रहा है)
VOICE के प्रकार
voice दो प्रकार के होते है:- 1.active voice और 2.passive voice
1. ACTIVE VOICE :- a verb is said to be in the active voice when its form shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject does something.
हिंदी में :- क्रिया को active voice में तब कहा जाता है जब उसके रूप से पता चलता है कि विषय द्वारा निरूपित व्यक्ति या वस्तु कुछ करती है
2. PASSIVE VOICE:- a verb is said to be in the passive voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or thing donoted by subjecative.
हिंदी में :- किसी क्रिया को passive voice तब कहा सकता है जिसका रूप से पता चलता है कि व्यक्ति या विषय द्वारा निरूपित चीज के लिये कुछ किया जाता है।
passive verb form
* voice को interchanging करते समय active voice के object को passive voice का subject बना दिया जाता है।
*active voice के subject को passive voice का agentबना दिया जाता है।
और पढ़ें – voice kya hai
present indefinite tense
passive form:- am/is/are + v3
exaple:- 1. he helps me. [ a. v ]
i am helped by him. [ p.v ]
2. i help you. [ a.v.]
you are helped by me. [p.v]
3. she teachars you. [a.v]
you are taughat by her. [p.v]
4. we respect him. [a.v]
he is respected by us.
5.people speak hindi in bihar. [a.v]
hindi is spoken in bihar [p.v]
6.we expect good news [a.v]
good news is expected. [p.v]
और पढ़ें -राष्ट्र निर्माण चुनोतियाँ notes in
present continuous tense
passive porm:- am/is/are+being+v3
1.i am eating a mango. [a.v]
A mango is being eaten by me [p.v]
2. they are singing song [a.v]
song is being sung by them [p.v]
3. they are repairing the bridge. [a.v]
the bridge is being repaired by them[p.v]
4. he is helping his mother. [a.p]
his mother is being helped by him
5. they are discussing the matter. [a.v]
the matter is being discussed. [p.v]
present perfect tense
passive form:- have/has + been+ v3
1.i have finished the word. [ a.v]
the word has been finised by me. [p.v]
2. he has beaten ram [a.v]
ram has been beaten by him. [p.v.]
3. her sister has cheated her. [a.v.]
she has been chearted by her sister. [p.v.]
4. ram has disturbed me. [ a.v.]
a have been disturbed by ram.
5. someone has stolen my pen.[ a.v.]
my pen has been stolen.
6. no one has seen him for the last ten years. [a.v.]
he has not been seen for the last ten years. [p.v.]
7. he has always helped me. [a.v.]
i have always been helped by him. [p.v.]
8. somebody has pushed the chair into the corner. [a.v.]
the chair has been pushed into the corner. [p.v.]
present perfect continuous tense
passive form :- have/has + been + being + v3
1.they have been doing the research for years. [a.v.]
the reasearch has been being done for years.[p.v.]
2. we have been dissing the well for ten years. [a.v.]
the well has been being dug for ten yeras. [p.v.]
NOTE: present perfect continuous tense के passive form का प्रयोग uncommon है। परन्तु अगर आवश्यकतावश करना पड़े,तो ऊपर बताये गये तरीके से होगा। ऐसा कहना गलत है कि present perfect continuous tense का passive form होता ही नही है। for reference see practical english usage,oxford univerity press.
past indefinite tense
passive form:- was/were+ v3
1. i ate a mango. [a.v.]
a mango was eaten by me [p.v.]
2. i ate four mangoes.
four mangoes was eaten by me
3. the police arrested him. [a.v.]
he was arrested. [p.v.]
4. someone stole my pen. [a.v.]
my pen was stoled. [p.v.]
5. the peon opened the gate.[ a.v.]
the gate was opened by the peon. [p.v.]
6.he wrote the letters. [ a.v.]
the letters were written by him. [p.v.]
7. she beat you. [a.v.]
you was beaten by her. [p.v.]
8. he wrote the letter beautifully. [a.v.]
the letter was beautifully written. [p.v.]
past continuous tense
passive form:- was/were + being + v3
1. he was teaching me. [a.v.]
i were being taught by him. [p.v.]
2. she was vexing him. [a.v.]
he was being vexed by her. [p.v.]
3. he was watching them. [a.v.]
they were being watched by him
4. the doctor was examining the patients.
the patientd was being examined [p.v.]
5.they were killing animals for nothing. [a.v.]
animals were being killed for nothing. [p.v.]
past perfect tense
passive form:- had been+ v3
i had written the letter. [a.v.]
the letter had been written by me. [p.v.]
2. i has informed the police.
the police had been informed by me.
past perfect continuous tense
passive form:- had been being +v3
1. the police had been follwing him for years. [a.v.]
he had been being followed for yeras. [p.v.]
simple future tense
passive form:- shall/will + be +v3
1. i shall help you. [a.v.]
you will be helped by me.
2. she will teach me.
i will be taught by her
future continuous tense
passive form:- shall/will + be+ being + v3
1. i shall be doing this. [a.v.]
this will be being done by me. [p.v.]
2 they will be helping us.
we shall be being helped by them.
future perfect tense
passive form:- shall/will + have been +v3
1. i shall have written the book. [a.v.]
the book will have been written by me
futurte perfect continuous tense
passive form:-shall/will + have been being +v3
1. we shall have been building the fort for five years.
the fort will have been being built for five years.